Gas Hydrate Formation

Amar has been pioneer, largest manufacturer, and exporter of gas hydrate formation systems in India since many years.

  • Volume: 100 ml to 100 ltr volume reactors.
  • Pressure Range: up to 350 bar
  • Temperature Range: up to 100°C
  • Material: SS-316, SS-316L, Hastelloy, Titanium, Monel, Inconel etc.
  • Sealing: High torque zero leakage magnetic drive coupling Specially designed gas induction impellers for introducing gas into the mixture to aid the formation of gas hydrates.
  • Heating: can be either through electrical heater or jacket.
  • Standards & Certification: Ex-proof, CE certified / CSA certified electricals, PED / ASME U Stamp, Atex certified systems can be quoted on request.
  • Automation: Our systems can be offered with various probes and accessories, designed to suit for different elevated temperature and pressure application with manual, semi-automated or a fully automated PC controlled systems to continuously monitor, control & record various process parameters.
  • Gas hydrates are inclusion compounds of gases in a lattice of water molecules. Massive amounts of methane are stored around the world under the sea floor in the form of solid methane hydrates. Methane hydrates, represent a new and completely untapped reservoir of fossil fuel, because they contain, immense amounts of methane, which is the main component of natural gas. Methane hydrates belong to a group of substances called Clathrates - substances in which one molecule type forms a crystal-like cage structure and encloses another type of molecule. If the cage-forming molecule is water, it is called a hydrate. If the molecule trapped in the water cage is a gas, it is a gas hydrate, like methane hydrate. Methane hydrate also poses problems during transportation of natural gas. Temperature and pressure conditions in pipelines especially in cold areas allow the formation of hydrates. These hydrates form agglomerates and tend to clog valves, pumps, pipelines, and other parts. It is desirable to avoid the formation of hydrates rather than removal of existing hydrate due to economical and safety reasons. The production as well as study of artificial gas hydrates are done in special autoclaves like the gas hydrate autoclave system, under specific pressure and temperature conditions. At room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure, methane hydrate is unstable dissociating into water and gas. Pipeline conditions can be simulated in the gas hydrate autoclaves to check the effectiveness & optimization of hydrate-inhibitors.
  • Glass window with camera for visual observation of gas hydrate formation.


Apart from our standard specifications we also provide additional value-added optional accessories to enhance the versatility and functionality of the equipment for various applications.

This system is used to control temperature overshoots for highly exothermic / out of control / runaway reactions as well as for faster cooling upon completion of the reaction.

a) Solenoid valve : This is standard for 100ml - 1Ltr table top autoclaves. For higher volumes, it is advisable only if the temperature is less than 100°C or at least 2-3 bar pressure is available in the water supply line.
b) Pump & water tank : It consists of a pump, SS304 water tank & hose pipes to circulate water in the internal cooling coil of the autoclaves for faster cooling. The pump can be either with a non-flameproof motor or an Ex-proof IIC class motor.

It is mounted on the vent line to maintain constant pressure inside the autoclave. The pressure can be set initially, either manually, pneumatically or electronically. Once the set pressure is exceeded, the excess pressure is released until the autoclave pressure becomes equal to or below the set pressure. The pressure release is slow and gradual and the set pressure can be varied at any point.

a) Manual Back Pressure Regulator : The pressure can be set initially on the gauge, by manually varying the knob until the gas comes out.

b) Electronically actuated digital pneumatic back pressure regulator : In this, the pressure is set digitally & can be released at a preset rate of pressure release. (6 bar air supply is required).

c) Pneumatically actuated pilot-operated back pressure regulator : Air/N2 gas supply of required pressure must be provided to operate the regulator.

It can be used for holding the catalyst so that it is not dispersed or destroyed in the reaction mass. The catalyst basket can be either static which is stationary or dynamic which rotates with the impeller. It is available for reactor volume of 500ml and above. The baskets are made from SS316 wire mesh.

These are small 7 microns SS 316 sintered cup filters which are threaded to bottom of the sampling dip tube so that the catalyst does not come out while sampling liquid. These catalyst filters are available for 500 ml - 100 ltr volume autoclaves. Different material and micron size filter can be provided based on the availability and design conformity.

It is used to collect the vent vapours / gases from the autoclave vent, rupture disc & safety valve port when the vapour or gas is highly hazardous and cannot be released directly into the atmosphere. It is provided with inlet, outlet, vent, dip tubes, pressure gauge, safety valve & optionally a flame or flashback arrester. It is suitable & available for any autoclave volume.

A digital pressure indicator is used for pressure indication, high pressure alarm and heater cut off for safety. The pressure sensor has a temperature limitation up to 100°C. The sensor can be either non-flameproof or an intrinsically safe pressure sensor with ex-proof IIC certification. Pressure sensors in Hastelloy C or Inconel material of construction can be offered on request.

This pot is used during the ethoxylation or propoxylation reactions. It consists of a horizontal pot with inlet, outlet valves, gas inlet with dip tube, thermowell, pressure gauge & high-pressure hose pipe for 10 bar working pressure. This pot can be also offered with a weighing balance on request to measure the quantity of Ethylene Oxide or Propylene Oxide charged into the reaction.

It consists of vertical SS sintered filter cartridges in a SS housing. After the batch is over, the reaction mass is transferred into the catalyst filter under pressure. After filtration is over, the catalyst is taken back into the reactor by back washing, thus recycling the same catalyst & making it available for next batch. This system is suitable & available for 2 ltr to 10,000 ltr reactor volume. These filters are available with zero hold-up volume as well.

Pneumatically actuated ball valve with ON/OFF solenoid valve can be connected at the jacket inlet for controlling flow of steam or hot oil or water for temperature control from PID. It can also be used at the gas inlet or vent of the autoclave for control of pressure.

For 5L and above volume autoclaves, this valve is provided as a standard fitting. For volumes between 500ml to 5L, it is an optional attachment as the vessel can be easily lifted and drained manually. This valve can be provided in SS316, Hastelloy C or Inconel material of construction.

These are used to manually charge a gas at desired pressures up to 140 bar / 2000 psi into the reactor from the gas cylinder. The regulator is made from SS316 & comes with inlet & outlet pressure gauges & flexible SS braided PTFE high pressure hose pipe (4m long) with non-return valve.

These are useful when the cylinder pressures are much lower than the process required pressure. These pneumatically operated boosters, take gas at lower pressure from the cylinder and compresses it to deliver at higher pressure. Special gas booster pumps are available for liquid CO2 used in supercritical fluid extraction systems. The booster systems are supplied with an air filter regulator, pressure relief valves, inlet-outlet pressure gauges, valves & flexible hose pipes. Gas booster are reaction specific and can be supplied as per the client’s requirement.

It consists of high-pressure SS-316 pot designed for working pressure 100 bar or higher, inlet, outlet & vent valves, pressure gauge, high pressure hose pipe, non-return valve & Pressure relief Valve. These pots can also be used for storage of gases when gas cylinders are located at a faraway place. Forward pressure regulators can be provided at the outlet of pot if they are used as gas charging.

Different types of impellers can be supplied or selected based on the reaction. Below are the various types of impellers :

  • a) Pitch Blade turbine impeller for liquid-liquid reactions
  • b) Hollow shaft with Gas-induction impeller for gas-liquid reaction
  • c) Anchor Impeller for high viscous materials
  • d) Spiral Impeller for high viscous materials

Note : The above impellers can be supplied individually or can be interchanged with another impeller. For more information, please Contact us.

For autoclave volumes, 10 ltr to 250 ltr & removable head design, the head & vessel are too heavy to lift manually. Hence chain pulley block mounted on same trolley with SS stand can be offered for lifting the head with minimum efforts.
Optional :

  • Electric chain pulley lift
  • Hydraulic lid lifting arrangement can be offered on request for any reactor volume.

These are quartz or sapphire view glass windows / light & sight glass of small diameter or along the length of the vessel with special cameras & software for continuous online viewing / recording in vessels to see the reaction. Suitable for high pressures up to 200 bar & any autoclave / reactor volume.

It is a 10 ltr. SS 304 tank with submersible pump to circulate water in the magnetic drive & pressure sensor jacket to prevent temperature rise beyond 100°C. It is useful if tap water connection is not near the autoclave & when water needs to be conserved.

Mass Flow meters can be used to measure accurate mass flow rate of gas ( in gm / hr or LPH) & totalized quantity of mass / volume ( in gm / ltr) charged in the autoclave at any point. Mass flow controller is used to charge the set flow rate of gas into the autoclave at high pressures up to 100 bar or it can be used in pressure control mode to indicate the gas flow & total gas uptake to maintain the desired set pressure inside the autoclave. The MFM / MFC comes with high pressure flexible hose, inlet filter with digital gas flow indicator cum totalizer & additional pressure PID controller with pressure sensor if the MFC is used in pressure control mode.

For 10L volume and above autoclaves this valve is provided as a standard fitting. For volumes between 500ml to 10L, it is optional as the head can be easily opened. The ball valve can be provided in SS316 or Hastelloy C material of construction.

A pressure relief valve is set to open at a predetermined set pressure to protect the autoclave. This valve can be provided in SS316 or Hastelloy C material of construction. The set pressure can be varied within a certain range.

It is connected at the outlet of the shell & tube or reflux condenser to collect the condensate separately. It is also provided with a port to apply vacuum & offered in volume up to 5L and SS316 or Hastelloy C material of construction. Higher volumes & other materials can be offered on request. It can be optionally provided with level indication.

It is a jacketed single tube SS-316 heat exchanger with packing material. It is available in 0.01, 0.02 or 0.05 m² area. Higher surface area and different materials can be offered on request.

SCADA is a supervisory control & data acquisition software with all controllers or indicators having RS 485 Modbus communication port or PLC & HMI or touch panel, for online display, setpoint changes & data logging of various parameters like pressure, temperature, motor RPM, motor current or torque, liquid or gas flow rate with totaliser, heater temperature level, pH, ORP, turbidity, IR etc. remotely from PC as well as locally from panel. It gives continuous online datalogging at predefined (variable) time interval, online graphical representation as well as historical data & graphs on PC for single or multiple autoclaves. RS 485-232 convertor & cable up to 5 m or higher is also supplied. Wireless data communication from PC to panel or mobile alerts can be supplied on request.

It is a SS-316 shell & tube reverse flow heat exchanger for distillation or condensing up to 10 bar pressure. It is offered in different surface areas such as 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 & 2 m². Higher area, pressure and different materials can be supplied on request.

Suitable rotary vane or diaphragm oil free vacuum pumps can be supplied for vacuum from 100 mbar up to 0.001 mbar in the reactor. It is used either before starting the batch or for high vacuum distillation. Suitable analogue or digital vacuum indicator with controller can be offered on request. The reactor fittings would change for very high vacuum & this may limit its pressure rating.

Level Transmitter (LT)/ switch (LS) with indicator to measure or maintain level inside the reactor under high pressure. Used mainly in CSTR. pH/ turbidity (TB)/ DO/ ORP sensors with indicators & controllers for high pressure & temperature application. pH can be controlled automatically by variable speed acid & base metering pumps.

Note : All accessories may not be applicable for the selected model. For more details Contact US.

Enquire Now