Micromixer

Amar has been a pioneer, largest manufacturer, and exporter of continuous flow reactors in India since many years. Amar Flow reactors are used by various industries like fine & speciality chemicals, bulk drugs (API) pharmaceuticals, dyes, intermediates, paints, agrochemicals, etc. to convert their batch chemistries to continuous flow.

  • Volume: 1 ml (micromixer) +10 ml (residence time coil)
  • Pressure Range: up to 50 bar
  • Temperature Range: -50°C to 350°C
  • Flow rate: upto 40 LPH
  • Heat transfer area: >2000 m2 / m3
  • Material: SS-316 or Hastelloy C276 for high corrosion resistance.
  • Very high specific surface area for effective heat transfer.
  • Patented micromixer design to achieve effective mixing.
  • Openable design for ease of maintenance.

Working

AMaR-1 is a cost-effective tool to screen different reactions and check feasibility for continuous flow chemistry. AMaR-1 has a micromixer with spiral microchannel with triangular obstructions designed for reactants to mix. This is followed by residence time coil where the reaction can be completed.

Application

This is suitable for Proof-of-concept studies at the lab-scale to check batch-to-continuous feasibility for any reaction. Some proven applications include fast and highly exothermic reactions like nitration, halogenations, sulfonations, diazotization, oxidation/reduction, etc. It’s a versatile reactor suitable for Liquid-Liquid miscible/immiscible, and also gas-liquid chemistries.

AMaR-1 : Lab Microreactor

Model AMaR 1
Volume (ml) 1 ml ( micromixer ) + 10 ml ( Residence Time Coil )
Flow Rate* ( lph ) Up to 40
Heat Transfer Area (m2 /m3) ~2000
Design Pressure (Bar) 50
Design Temperature (°C) -50 to 350
Material Of Construction SS-316 / Hastelloy C 276

Note : * Assuming 1 sec as residence time – actual flow rate may vary for application.

Accessories

Apart from our standard specifications we also provide additional value-added optional accessories to enhance the versatility and functionality of the equipment for various applications. Some of the components that we provide as a part of our flow reactor systems :

It is SS316 regulator mounted on the vent line of the reactor &is used for maintaining constant pressure inside the reactor up to 350bar. The pressure is maintained by releasing the excess pressure into the atmosphere.
Optional

  • Electronically actuated digital pneumatic back pressure regulator, where the pressure is set digitally & can be released at preset rate of pressure release (6bar air supply is required).
  • Pneumatically actuated pilot operated back pressure regulator (air/N2 gas supply for rated pressure is required to activate the same).
  • Electronic control unit & forward pressure regulator with 4mtr.
  • Materials: Hastelloy C, PTFE etc.

Control Panel consists of programmable PID temperature controller cum indicator with temperature alarm system (settable), safety alarm & heater trip system for malfunctioning of controller/sensor/ temperature rise beyond set limit. Digital pressure indicator/ controller, gas/liquid flow indicator, totalizer, heater, level, pH etc. Indicators are provided additionally on same common control panel depending on the optional accessories are selected.
Optional :

  • Touch screen panel with SCADA software.
  • PLC based control panel with touch panel HMI or remote SCADA software & PC Control.
  • Complete Ex-proof-flame proof (FLP) group IIA/IIB or IIC, ATEX zone 1, class 1 div. 2 certified.
  • Single Fluid closed loop system from -90°C to 250°C.
  • Heating Cooling bath circulators from 70°C to 175°C.
  • High temperature circulators from ambient to 350°C.
  • Chillers up to -15°C.
  • Suitable for reactor volume from 10 ml to 3000 ltr.

It consists of SS316 pressure sensor (transmitter) & digital pressure indicator/ controller (mounted on common control panel) with pressure alarm.

This unit is used to separate plug flow of two immiscible liquids used in biphasic reaction or two phases of an extraction flow.
MOC: ETFE, PFA & PTFE, pressure @ 300 psi.

This system is used to charge liquid at a desired rate from as low as 1ml/hr, is under pressurized condition.

  • Diaphragm metering pumps for pressures up to 100bar & minimum flow range of 60-600ml/hr to maximum 10-100 lit/hr. The flow rates are varied by varying the motor speed with variable frequency drive. Materials: SS316, options: Hastelloy C, Titanium, PTFE.
  • High pressure more accurate HPLC type low flow metering pumps for high pressures up to 350 bar & flow range from 0.01 up to 100ml/min. Materials: SS316, option: Hastelloy C, Titanium.
  • Low/High pressure syringe, pumps can be offered for pumping corrosive chemicals.

MFM can be used to measure accurate mass flow rate of gas (in gm/hr or LPH) & totalized quantity of mass/volume (in gm/ltr) charged in the reactor at any point. Mass flow controller (MFC) is used to charge the set flow rate of gas into the reactor at high pressures up to 100bar. The same MFM/MFC comes with high pressure flexible hose, inlet filter with digital gas flow indicator.

Note : All accessories may not be applicable for the selected model. For more details Contact US.

Material of Construction ( M.O.C)

All wetted parts are made from SS-316L / SS-316 as standard.
Optional: Hastelloy B/C, Titanium, Monel, Inconel, Zirconium, Tantalum, Carbon Steel, etc. for different liquids corrosive to SS-316. Other special alloys like A286, Alloy 20, duplex steel, etc. can also be offered.

Note: Amar offers all the internal & optionally external wetted pats in the same material of construction as that of body & head to give fully corrosion resistant autoclaves.

Material Selection Guide: AMAR gives recommendation for material selection for particular media, however it does not guarantee 100% corrosion resistance of a particular material to a particular corrosive media, as the same depends on various parameters like temperature, pressure, concentration, etc. of the reactions. Reactor vessels of material SS316, above 5 ltr are normally fabricated from plates. SS 316 autoclaves up to 100 ltr have lids made from rolled / forged bar stock. The material listed below may not be available in all possible sizes.

SS316 is an alloy of chromium – nickel with molybdenum which improves the corrosion resistance properties. The molybdenum in the material also elevates its strength. SS 316 / 316L both have almost the same corrosion resistance properties, the only difference is SS 316L has a low carbon stainless steel content.

SS 316 / 316L has excellent corrosion resistance to:

  • Most organic acid systems like acetic, formic, etc.
  • Ammonia & most ammonia compounds
  • Many salts except chlorides
  • Most commercial gases at moderate temperature & pressures
  • Hydrogen chloride, fluoride & chloride in scrupulously anhydrous systems

 

SS316 / 316L has poor resistance to:

  • Organic halides
  • Dilute sulfuric, phosphoric & nitric acids at high temperatures & pressures
  • Halogen acids at low temperatures & in dilute forms
  • Caustics, halogen salts, chlorides, etc.

 

Applications of SS 316 / 316L is mainly in chemical & petrochemical industry, food processing, pharmaceutical equipment, & also in marine & architectural applications.

Chemical Composition:

Element Percentage
Iron ( Fe ) 60% - 67%
Nickel ( Ni ) 9% - 12%
Chromium ( Cr ) 18% - 21%
Molybdenum ( Mo ) 2% - 3%
Carbon ( C ) 0.08%
Other:
Silicon ( Si ) 2%
Manganese ( Mn ) 1.5%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
SS 316 4 5 5 6 5 6 1 0 3 2

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 600°C

Hastelloy C22, also known as Alloy C22, is a superalloy of nickel-chromium-molybdenum with a chemical composition of nickel 56%, chromium 22% & molybdenum 13% along with a substantial amount of iron, cobalt & tungsten. Hastelloy C22 has the widest corrosion resistance & is the most widely used alloy for corrosion media.

Hastelloy C22 has excellent corrosion resistance to:

  • Variety of chloride compounds & chlorine contaminated material
  • Strong oxidizing chloride solutions such as wet chlorine & hydrochloride & sodium hypochlorite solutions
  • Concentrated hydrochloric, sulfuric & phosphoric acids.

 

Hastelloy C22 possess the following properties:

  • Hastelloy C22 is one of the most resistant metals which offers resistance to oxidizing & reducing environments, along with chlorine induced localized corrosion.
  • At elevated temperatures, Alloy C22 offers good resistance for reactions like sulfidation, oxidation & carburization.
  • It offers the possibility to cold work for higher strength levels.

 

Chemical Composition:

Element Percentage
Chromium ( Cr ) 20% -22.5%
Molybdenum ( Mo ) 12.5% - 14.5%
Tungsten ( W ) 2.5% - 3.5%
Cobalt ( Co ) 2% - 6%
Iron ( Fe ) 0.08%
Other:
Manganese ( Mn ) 0.5%
Vanadium ( V ) 0.35%
Silicon ( Si ) 0.08%
Phosphorous ( P ) 0.02%
Sulphur ( S ) 0.02%
Carbon ( C ) 0.015%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
Alloy C22 5 6 5 6 4 6 5 5 4 4

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 600°C

Hastelloy C-276, also known as Alloy C276, is a nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy with a trace quantity of tungsten that has been reinforced by solid solution. Excellent corrosion resistance is displayed by Alloy C-276 in a number of challenging environments and media. It is ductile, readily made, and weldable, like many other nickel alloys. Most industrial applications where there are special chemical environments and other alloys have failed adopt this alloy.

Applications:

The manufacturing of pulp and paper, oil and gas, electricity generation, pharmaceutical, chemical and petrochemical processing, and waste water treatment are just a few of the industries that regularly use Hastelloy C-276. Stack liners, ducts, dampers, scrubbers, stack gas reheaters, heat exchangers, reaction vessels, evaporators, transfer pipework, and several more extremely corrosive applications are examples of end use applications.

Chemical Composition:

Element Percentage
Nickel ( Ni ) 55% - 63%
Molybdenum ( Mo ) 15% - 17%
Chromium ( Cr ) 14.5% - 16.5%
Iron ( Fe ) 4% - 7%
Carbon ( C ) 0.01%
Other:
Cobalt ( Co ) 2.5%
Tungsten ( W ) 3% - 4.5%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
Alloy C276 5 6 5 6 4 6 5 5 4 4

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 600°C

Hastelloy B is an alloy comprised of nickel & molybdenum & offers excellent corrosion resistance to solutions of hydrochloric, sulfuric & phosphoric acid in all concentrations & at all temperatures in the absence of oxidizing agents. Hastelloy B2 is suited for the majority of chemical process applications in the as-welded condition because it resists the production of grain boundary carbide precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone. To provide homogeneous corrosion resistance, the precipitation of carbides and other phases has been decreased in the heat-affected weld zones.

Additionally, Alloy B2 has outstanding resistance to stress corrosion cracking and pitting. A nickel-molybdenum alloy called Hastelloy B2 is especially well suited for equipment handling decreasing chemical conditions.

Applications utilizing sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrochloric, and acetic acids in the chemical processing sector. Depending on the setting, temperature applications range from room temperature to 1500°F.

Chemical Composition:

Element Percentage
Nickel ( Ni ) 67% - 71%
Molybdenum ( Mo ) 26% - 30%
Iron ( Fe ) 2%
Chromium ( Cr ) 1%
Carbon ( C ) 0.01%
Other:
Cobalt ( Co ) 1%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
Alloy B 6 4 4 4 0 3 0 1 3 5

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 427°C

A nickel-copper alloy called Monel 400, constituting 67% Ni & 23% Cu, is resistant to salt and caustic solutions, as well as sea water and steam at high temperatures. The only way to harden Monel 400 is through cold working because it is a solid solution alloy. High strength, outstanding weldability, and strong corrosion resistance are all features of this nickel alloy.

Monel 400 offers excellent corrosion resistance to:

  • Caustic Solutions
  • Chlorinated Salts
  • Fluorine & Hydrogen Fluoride

 

Monel 400 has poor resistance to nitric acid & ammonia systems.

It has varied applications in marine engineering, chemical & hydrocarbon processing equipment, crude petroleum stills, etc.

Chemical Composition:

Element Percentage
Nickel ( Ni ) 65%
Copper ( Cu ) 30%
Aluminium ( Al ) 2.3% - 3.1%
Iron ( Fe ) 2%
Other:
Titanium ( Ti ) 0.35%-0.85%
Carbon ( C ) 0.3%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
Alloy 400 5 6 6 1 0 5 1 2 6 3

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 482°C

Inconel 600 / 625 is a nickel–chromium non-magnetic high temperature alloy that offers excellent properties of high strength & corrosion & heat resistance. Due to its high nickel concentration, the alloy is essentially impervious to chloride-ion tress-corrosion cracking and resistant to both organic and inorganic compound corrosion. Chromium offers resistance to oxidizing onditions in corrosive solutions or at high temperatures, as well as resistance to Sulphur compounds. Inconel 600 / 625 can only be strengthened and hardened through cold work; precipitation hardening is not an option. Due to INCONEL alloy 600's adaptability, it is used in a wide range of applications including temperature.

It offers excellent resistance to:

  • Caustic acids & chlorides at high temperature & pressure when sulfur compounds are present.
  • Reducing-oxidizing environment
  • Sulfur free gases
  • Very high temperature

 

Chemical Composition of Inconel 600:

Element Percentage
Nickel ( Ni ) 73% - 80%
Chromium ( Cr ) 14% - 17%
Iron ( Fe ) 2%
Carbon ( C ) 0.15%

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 482°C

Chemical Composition of Inconel 625:

Element Percentage
Nickel ( Ni ) 58%
Chromium ( Cr ) 22% - 23%
Iron ( Fe ) 8% - 10%
Carbon ( C ) 0.15%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
Alloy 600/625 3 6 6 6 3 6 1 2 5 3

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 650°C

One of the strongest metals in use is nickel 200, a 99.6% pure nickel alloy. It has strong thermal and electrical conductivity as well as outstanding mechanical qualities. Additionally, Nickel 200 is highly resistant to corrosive environments and is simple to fabricate because to its advantageous features and chemical makeup. Nickel 200 sustains the majority of corrosive and caustic conditions, media, alkalis, and acids with exceptional durability (sulfuric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric). Ni 200, which is applied indoors and outdoors, also has:

  • special magnetic and magneto strictive characteristics
  • high conductivities for both heat and electricity
  • Low vapor pressure and low gas content

 

It offers high resistance to:

  • Handling concentrated alkalis
  • Hot caustic environment
  • Chlorinated solvents & Phenol

 

Chemical Composition:

Element Percentage
Nickel ( Ni ) 99.4%
Iron ( Fe ) 0.4%
Carbon ( C ) 0.15%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
Nickel 200 4 5 6 1 0 5 0 2 6 2

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 316°C

Commercially pure titanium is available in grades 2 and 4 (at least 99% titanium). The chemical makeup of each grade varies somewhat, which has an impact on mechanical qualities and design potential. Both grades share a similar level of corrosion resistance. Titanium is very corrosion resistant, lightweight, and frequently outperforms stainless steels in most conditions in terms of corrosion resistance. Grade 2 is the preferred alloy for the majority of industrial applications that call for good ductility and corrosion resistance out of the four commercially pure (C.P.) titanium grades.

It has excellent corrosion resistance to:

  • Oxidizing agents such as aqua regia & other mined acids
  • Nitric acid at all concentrations except red fuming nitric acids
  • Chloride ions, ferric chloride, cupric chloride & other hot chloride solutions

 

Titanium alloys are used extensively in the medical and aerospace industries. Titanium Grade 2 is highly suited for use in the marine, chemical processing, and desalination industries due to its strength and corrosion resistance. Applications for Grade 2 titanium often include flue-gas desulphurization systems, reaction and pressure vessels, heat exchangers, liners, tubing or piping systems, oil and gas components, and many other industrial parts. Temperatures for continuous service can reach up to 800°F, and for sporadic, intermittent service, they can reach up to 1000°F.

Chemical Composition:

Element Percentage
Titanium ( Ti ) >=98.9%
Iron ( Fe ) <=0.4%
Oxygen ( O ) <=0.25%
Carbon ( C ) <=0.08%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
Titanium 3 6 2 6 6 6 6 6 0 1

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 316°C

Zirconium 702 has excellent thermal conductivity, corrosion resistant, and is inert to all organic and inorganic substances. Its qualities make it the perfect substance for corrosion-resistant process equipment. Any piece of process equipment where corrosion is a concern should be given zirconium consideration due to its long-term advantages of decreased downtime, greater life expectancy, and profitability.

Zirconium is widely recognized for its resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion as well as its immunity to stress corrosion cracking. At ambient temperature, a protective oxide layer forms on this reactive metal because of its high affinity for oxygen.

Zirconium offers excellent corrosion resistance to:

  • Reducing environments
  • All chlorides except ferric & cupric
  • Hydrochloride & sulfuric acids below 70% concentration
  • Phosphoric, nitric acids & alkaline solutions

 

It has poor resistance to oxidizing agents

Chemical Composition:

Element Percentage
Zirconium ( Zr ) 95.5%
Hafnium ( Hf ) 4.5%
Iron ( Fe ) + Chromium ( Cr ) 0.2%
Nitrogen 0.025%

Corrosion Rating:

RATINGS - 0:Unsuitable 1:Poor to Fair 2:Fair 3:Fair to good 4:Good 5:Good to Excellent 6:Normally Excellent

Materials Non-oxidizing or reducing media Liquids Gases
Acid solutions excluding Hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfates Alkaline solutions Oxidizing Media Halogen & derivatives
Caustic & mild alkalis, excluding ammonium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide & amines Acid solutions, e.g. nitric Neutral or alkaline solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromates Pitting media, acid ferric chloride solutions Halogen Hydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, hydrogen chloride
Moist, e.g. chlorine below dew point Dry, e.g. fluorine above dew point
Zirconium 3 6 2 6 6 6 2 6 1 6

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 316°C

Tantalum is practically inert to many oxidizing &amp; reducing acids. It offers the best &amp; most outstanding resistance to wide variety of corrosive media including hydrochloric acid. It is attacked by hot alkalis &amp; hydrofluoric acid.

Note: Maximum Design Temperature: 371°C

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